Great Civilization in Susa

Susa in Iran, A pre-Islamic tourist attraction 

The ancient city of Susa which is called Shush in Iran located in the west of Iran  in the lower Zagros Mountains, in the Susiana plains between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. Susa in one of the eldest City in Iran with a rich history dating back to decades before Persian Empire, more than 6000 years. This oldest world human settlements used to be Capital of Iran & experience various ups and downs. Due to its magnificent era, Susa registered in UNESCO’s list. 

 
 Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat


About Susa

The ancient Susa was considered as the most significant place due to its location. Susa, the UNESCO World Heritage Site located near Euphrates and Tigris rivers of Mesopotamia, dating back to about 6000 years ago among the Royal road. also Shush was enough close to Mesopotamia to influence the Great civilizations of its time such as Sumerians or was the regular oponent in the battlefield with Assyrians. It is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the ancient world and the famous capital with thousands years history.

 
 ancient civilizations


Name of Ancient Susa is more interconnected with Elamite era. Susa 
is well-known as being the artistic, industrial, commercial and political hubs at Elamite (Ilam) period for near 2000 years. The word Ilam in the Mesopotamian language means the mountain people. Therefore, it reinforce the theory about these people that they lived up in the mountains before changing their place & migrate to these regions.

 
 Tchogha Zanbil, the old civilization in Iran


In this time, from 3500 to 2500 Years B.C. The ancient city of Susa was influenced by the Great Sumerian Civilization. via 
wheel-made potteries and architectural changes at the ancient city of Susa were appeared during this period. the population had grown and trade exchanges had thrived. It subsequently led to the beginning of accounting and writing. Another feature of this period is the use of flat and cylindrical seals to indicate the identity of their owners.

Susa at 2nd Half of the 2nd Millennium:

The most Glorious Period of Susa is launched in this time. creating fabulous gold and silver figurines, Embellishments on the molded bricks which was inspired by Banylonia were culminated. The most Notable Tchogha-Zanbi Ziggurat , even an astonishing monument for today, which is example of the culmination of Elamites’ art and architecture is witness of how Elamite civilization was Majesty. Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat was constructed by Untash Napirisha, the Elamite king as a temple during the 13th century B.C for worshiping their gods. This magnificent Ziggurat of Iran is a five-story ziggurat temple attributed to two Elamite gods: “Inshushinak” and “Napirisha”. They believed the guarding god of their capital ascends to heaven from that point.

 
 Ziggurat of Iran


The Decline of the Ancient City of Susa:

Such as all empires in the world, one point is the beginning of the decline of an empire. The Ilam Empire was no exception. with no doubt, the mid-Elamite kingdom, the third period, is the most splendid era of the ancient Susa when the borders of Empire were expanded & several monuments and buildings were constructed but along with the diminishing power of the follows kings, Elams' downfall started. in 650s Elamite had defeated by Assyrians Empire and they Ended the supremacy of Elamite in this region. However, by migration of Arian Tribes, everything were changed and these regions were conquered by Medes and added to realm of Persian Empires. Especially during Persian Achaemenian Empire, Elam had a good realtion with Darius the Great and again used to be one Capital of dynasty. Even Darius the I has constructed an other Apadana Palace in this ancient city similar in grandeur to Persepolis.

   
 Apadana Palace Susa  Susa Apadana Palace


It is also home of the Danial-e-nabi Prophet who came to Susa with Jewries at 7th century BCE. Susa regained renown as a Jewish pilgrimage site and became a center of Nestorian Christian study. Evacuated on the time of Foreign Mongol invaders and nowadays it’s a small city. Excavations started at Qajar era by different European groups.